Multi-Tiered Systems of Support

Overarching Themes of MTSS/RTI (NASDSE, 2008)

1: High Quality, Evidence Based instruction and Intervention

2: Decisions will be based on learning rate and level of performance according to reliable and valid data
3: High stakes decisions will be made with the use of reliable and valid data assessments

Problem Solving and Planning Process:
1. Problem Identification
2. Problem Analysis
3. Plan Development
4. Plan Evaluation

Transition to Multi-Tier System of Supports (MTSS)

This year, many have heard the acronym MTSS rather than RTI. The change reflects the objective of varying the intensity of services for students based on the intensity of need. Some of our students may require multiple levels of support rather than a singular ‘intervention’. MTSS provides a better description of a framework that is dynamic and allows a better fit by need for our students. MTSS also allows for an integration of academic and behavioral support rather than one area of the other. Through analysis of assessment data, services can be efficiently and effectively allocated.

Information adapted from Florida’s Multi-Tier System of Support

High Quality Instruction

High Quality Instruction

High quality instruction (curriculum, instruction, and assessment) is engaging, standards-based, data-driven, and research-based. All students should receive high quality, core academic and behavioral instruction that is differentiated for student need and aligned with the district standards for mathematics and English language arts and other state and local standards. Standards assist in providing consistent grade-level benchmarks.Core instruction refers to the curriculum, instruction, and assessment that all students receive. Core curriculum stems from and is directly shaped by the standards, the district curricular framework, and the effective use of formative, summative, and benchmark assessments. All curriculum and instructional practices should be examined against their evidence base and the educational context within which they will be implemented.

Research summaries will be developed to guide best practices in instruction and assessment. Archives will be maintained below.

Research Summaries

Reading Fluency

Math Fluency Research Synthesis

Social Emotional Synthesis



Interventions are intended to increase student performance in the general curriculum for students who are not meeting benchmarks in a particular curricular area. Additional challenges are intended to meet the needs of students who are exceeding benchmarks. For students whose screening data indicate they are either likely to not meet benchmarks or are likely to exceed benchmarks in a particular instructional area, educators use data in a collaborative process to determine appropriate interventions or additional challenges, which are matched to a student’s particular area of need. Within this process, the intensity of intervention or additional challenge is also determined. Students continue to access core curriculum, instruction, and assessment in addition to these small group or individual interventions or additional challenges. In certain cases when stu-dents exceed benchmarks, a collaborative team may determine that an additional challenge may most appropriately take place in lieu of core instruction.

High quality instruction (curriculum, instruction, and assessment) is engaging, standards-based, data-driven, and research-based. The process of identifying and using interventions and additional challenges is flexible and fluid. The intensity and nature of the interventions or additional challenges should be adjusted based on a student’s responsiveness as evidenced by multiple data sources. Instructional time, frequency of instructional sessions, size of the instructional group, level of instruction, instructional technique, and instructional provider are examples of adjustments that can be made to respond to student need. Interventions and additional challenges, as components of high-quality instruction, should each be culturally responsive and appropriate for the students being served. (Wisconsin RTI, 2010).

Below is a listing of high quality resources used in the development of the Elmbrook MTSS framework.

General MTSS/RTI Resources:

The What Works Clearinghouse or WWC, is provided by the Institute of Education Sciences (IES). The WWC provides reviews of interventions but also produces high quality practice guides to assist educators to access and use to inform decision making and practice. Several practice guides from the WWC are posted below along with resources from the Center on Instruction and others. Click to access the pdf's.

Math/Numeracy:
Assisting Students Struggling with Math WWC.pdf
Improving Mathematical Problem Solving Gr 4-8 WWC.pdf
early_math_pg_111313.pdf|
wwc_algebra_040715.pdf

Reading/ELA:
Assisting Students Struggling with Reading-primary grades WWC.pdf
Evidence Based Reading Instruction for Adolescents Grades 6-12 Ceedar 5-2015.pdf
Improving Reading Comprehension k-3 WWC.pdf
extensive_reading_interventions_K-3.pdf
COI- Adolescent Literacy.pdf
coi_struggling_readers (1).pdf

Writing:
Evidence Based Practices for Writing-ceedar.pdf
Writing Next-Carnegie.pdf
Writing to Read.pdf

English Language Learners:

COI Recommendations Intervention students ELL.pdf
english_learners_pg_040114.pdf


General MTSS/RTI References and Sites:

Click to access and open new windows:

Center on Instruction
Direct Behavior Ratings (DBR)
Evidence Based Intervention Network – U of Missouri
Florida Center for Reading Research (FCRR)
GOSBR.net – practical, free, and research based interventions
IES Practice Guides – Guidance and Best Practices
Intervention Central- RTI Resources
Minnesota Center for Reading Research
National Center for Intensive Intervention (NCII) – tools and assessment charts
National Center for RTI
National Implementation Research Network (NIRN-scaling up)
RTI Action Network
Vaughn-Gross Center for Reading and Language Arts (Meadows Center)


Please call or email
Chris Birr, MTSS Coordinator with questions/comments. Follow ElmbrookMTSS on twitter for updates

High Quality Intervention

High Quality Intervention


Intervention Descriptions

The descriptions below provide one page descriptions of potential interventions, entry and exit guidelines, and how progress will be monitored. Interventions are arranged in the following categories:

Area of Need:Description of Area
Reading Decoding/Basic Reading
  • Applying knowledge of letter-sound relationships, including knowledge of letter patterns, to correctly pronounce written words

Reading Fluency

  • Reading with speed, accuracy, and proper expression.

Reading Comprehension

  • Understanding and interpreting what is read.

Math Calculation

  • Solving math problems involving all four operations.

Math Reasoning:

  • Generalizing and applying math skills to solve problems.



READING/ELA:

BASIC READING/DECODING:
Elementary: ERI, Fundations-Wilson, Jolly Phonics, Just Words, LLI-Blue, LLI-Green, LLI- Orange, LLI-Red, Road to the Code, Wilson Reading

Middle: Just Words, Wilson Reading

High:
Just Words, Wilson Reading

Reading Fluency:
Elementary: HELPS, Quick Reads, Read Live (formerly Read Naturally), Repeated Reading

Middle:
HELPS, LLI-Purple, Read Live

High:
Read Live, HELPS-depending on reading level, Repeated Reading Intervention- (when probes unavailable or all used)

Link to Read Live Materials- click here - courtesy of Read Live
Link to HELPS Reading Fluency Intervention

Reading Comprehension:
Elementary: LLI-Blue, LLI- Green, LLI- Orange, LLI-Red, Comprehension Focus Group, Visualizing and Verbalizing

Middle: LLI- Purple, Visualizing and Verbalizing

High: Visualizing and Verbalizing, Content Area Intervention


Math Calculation:
Elementary: Bridges Intervention, Do the Math, Number Worlds

Middle: ALEKS, Do the Math Now!

High: ALEKS

Incremental Rehearsal: Consider use of this Intervention Protocol when mastery of math facts is needed (prerequisite skill for math computation). Adaptable for all grade levels.

Math Reasoning:

Elementary: Dreambox Learning

Middle: Math Support, ALEKS

High: Do the Math Now!

Supplemental Resources: As of the 2016-2017 school year, students will have access to Dreambox Learning and ALEKS.

Dreambox Learning: Grades K-5 (approximately)

ALEKS- Grades 3-12 (approximately)


Writing : Presently in the process of developing our screening process, intervention selection will follow.


Behavior : click to view past version of interventions on MTSS- Behavior side of site
Elementary: Behavior Contract, Check in Check out, Social/Academic Skills Group
Middle: Behavior Contract, Check in Check out,Social/Academic Skills Group
High: Behavior Contract, Check in Check out, Lancer House-BCHS


An intervention can be defined as anything a school does, above and beyond what all students receive, that helps a child succeed in school. The Wisconsin Department of Public Instruction (DPI) has also provided some recommendations regarding the definition of ‘intensive intervention’ if students do not respond to instruction or intervention.

DPI recommends that intensive interventions are:

  • Systematic
  • Used with individuals or small groups
  • Focus on single skills or small groups of targeted skills
  • Substantial number of minutes (core general ed. + 30, 60, 90 minutes)
Interventions should also meet the following criteria:
  • Delivered in a manner consistent with design
  • Be aligned to student need (based on data)
  • Be culturally appropriate
Matching Intervention to Stage of Learning (Haring, Lovitt, Eaton, & Hansen, 1978)

In the School District of Elmbrook, we will select interventions that match the student level of skill acquisition. Haring et al. (1978) established the following stages of learning: Acquisition, Fluency, and Generalization/Adaptation. Targeting intervention by skill matched to the stage of learning provides maximum potential for benefit to our students. Stages of Learning chart

For more information, click here or on the link below.

Intervention Integrity

The term ‘treatment integrity’ is interchangeable with ‘treatment fidelity’ when used to describe delivery of an intervention. Both terms are receiving more attention and focus in the areas of education, psychology, and medicine. Without knowing how well any intervention or practice
was delivered, how can one know the obtained results are a reflection of the practice or the delivery? Although measuring Intervention Integrity is difficult at best, we will be striving to provide high quality practices, methods, and interventions to our students. By clicking this LINK, a proposed process is presented how intervention integrity checklists can be developed. The focus on the checklist is twofold. 1- The checklist is an efficient reminder for the teacher to focus on the key elements of instruction for the intervention. 2- The checklist is a method for peer observation so those who are not as familiar with the intervention, can still provide feedback to the interventionist. The sole purpose of an intervention integrity checklist is to serve as a vehicle for conversations to improve outcomes for students.

IES PRACTICE GUIDE SUMMARIES AND LINKS:
The Institute of Educational Sciences (IES) provides Practice Guides in the areas of Literacy, Mathematics, and Writing. The practice guides bring together the best evidence and research to provide guidance to schools to instruct students using the best methods and processes.

One page summaries of the guides are posted below, click to access the summary.

SCHOOL DISTRICT OF ELMBROOK INTERVENTIONS:


During the 2012-2013 school year, a district Response to Intervention Committee compiled lists of interventions in the areas of reading/English language arts, mathematics and behavior. Interventions were selected for use at the elementary, middle and high school levels. Listed below are the interventions for each level. Descriptions provide entry and exit considerations along with the areas of measurement to be collected to monitor progress.

Intervention Resources



Intervention Selection:NIRN Hexagon

Initially, interventions present in the system were used to build our inventory. As we continue to refine our assessment and intervention frameworks, continual review of intervention outcomes will be conducted. Continual review of existing and exploration of new tools and interventions will be conducted to ensure we provide our students the best service possible.

To evaluate new products, this process will be followed:
1. The team identifies the discrete skill addressed by the intervention.
2. Independent Research Review: use of ERIC, What Works Clearinghouse, National Center for Intensive Intervention, Evidence for ESSA, Google Scholar or other academic database to collect relevant, independent supporting research of the product in review.
3. Review of Publisher based research.
4. Review of district data (assessment) to determine if the intensity of need.
5. Development of pilot plan to deploy intervention or product to a limited group. Team of representative professionals will be selected to evaluate use of intervention or product.
6. Selection of assessments to be used to conduct program evaluation (pre-post) or effect of intervention on pilot group.
7. To summarize finding and plan for future, the HEXAGON Tool from the National Implementation Research Network (NIRN) will be completed by the representative group. Click to access the Hexagon tool.

Questions to ask when considering new products or materials. - Click for Link.

Completed Intervention Reviews-click link to access review
Reference:
Blase, K., Kiser, L. and Van Dyke, M. (2013). The Hexagon Tool: Exploring Context. Chapel Hill, NC:National Implementation Research Network, FPG Child Development Institute, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.

Please call or email Chris Birr, MTSS Coordinator with questions/comments.

Follow ElmbrookMTSS on twitter for updates

Data-Based Decision Making

Data-Based Decision Making:

General Warning "Triggers":
Student performance will be reviewed when 2 or more 'triggers' indicate possible need for additional instruction or intervention.

  • Triggers do not mean mandatory intervention, teams need to consider student need and all relevant information to select best way to increase skills.
"2 out of 3" rule continues to apply.

  • For example, if MAP and OR scores are below triggers, team should consider intervention. If only 1 trigger is low, examine student performance (time of assessment, subtest scores) or collect more data such as a CBM.
  • CBM is a confirmatory measure when assessment results contradict.
  • When making student level decisions, intervention is not mandated when 2 triggers are met.

Triggers considered are:

Below the 25th Percentile Nationally:

  • Below 25th percentile in MAP Reading and/or Math
  • Below 25th percentile on Oral Reading Assessments
  • If confirmatory CBM are used, scores below the 25th percentile (+/- 2 points)
Accuracy Trigger:
  • Below 93% read correctly on passages (OR reading assessment)
  • Below 75% read correctly on Word Reading Fluency (1st grade Fall)

State Criteria:

  • K-1 PALS : missed sum benchmark- automatic entry into intervention per statute
  • 1st PALS is administered only in fall
  • Minimal or Basic on Wisconsin Forward (Formerly WKCE, Badger 3-8)

Below district criteria:

  • Below Trigger for Teachers’ College Assessment (Reading)
  • Below district targets/triggers for writing assessment (TBD)
  • Below expectations on Math fluency measures- less than 20 correct per minute

Consider if intervention is necessary,

  • What specific skill instruction does this student need to close the gap and eventually meet tier 1 targets?
  • How can those skills be most effectively be taught to the student?

Progress Monitoring Rules applicable to students receiving academic intervention:

  • Initial CBM conducted within Fall benchmark period (Sept 1-Oct 15) or within 2 weeks initiation of intervention.

Minimum monitoring is every other week

Conduct weekly progress monitoring when:

MAP Reading is below 15th percentile AND CBM scores are below 25th percentile

  • If rate of improvement is unclear and/or below the aimline
  • Teams can increase the frequency of monitoring to weekly.
The following measures can be used up to weekly :
  • Letter Name, Letter Sounds, Phoneme Segmenting- early Literacy Fluency Measures- continue Early Literacy areas until 50th percentile reached with 96% accuracy
  • Word Reading Fluency: Nonsense Word Fluency: First grade
  • Passage Reading Fluency: End of First-Eighth grade
  • AIMSWeb: CBM-OR (reading fluency), Maze, Math computation, Math applications and concepts, spelling, writing
Exit Guidelines : Triangulate data when considering exit from intervention. Consider monitoring using CBM up to weekly when making exit decisions.

Cheat Sheets / Resources

ion- Data Management System

ion will be our software to record student plans and view reports on students. Cheat sheets are available at the link below:

ion.png

ion information- click here for cheat sheets- updated frequently


CBM and aimsweb 2.0

aimsweb will continue to be our assessment system to monitor progress for students receiving academic intervention or supplemental instruction. aimsweb will be the primary progress monitoring tool to assess progress of students receiving additional instruction or intervention. Minimum monitoring will occur every other week.

Various cheat sheets and tutorials are available at the links below:

CBM and aimsweb information- click here

Monitoring Progress Using CBM/DBR

Monitoring Progress using Curriculum Based Measurement (CBM) and/or Direct Behavior Rating (DBR)


Curriculum Based Measurement (CBM) is a form of assessment that allows for efficient and repeated measurement of a child's academic skills in specific areas. CBM's can be used as a universal screening tool (2-3 times a year for all) or to monitor program for those receiving additional and more intensive instruction. In general, a child is administered various measures on a fairly regular basis (i.e. monthly, bi-weekly, or weekly) to assess progress toward expected outcomes. The frequency of assessment depends on the child's progress and intensity of intervention. The alternative forms of CBM are developed to be controlled for difficulty so progress can be assessed as the child receives instruction or intervention. Gains in performance then accurately reflect skill acquisition. CBM's are typically used to monitor progress of students in academic interventions. For students receiving interventions or supplemental instruction, we will monitor progress at least every other week.

The advantages to using CBM to monitor progress are:

  • efficiency- measures take from 1-10 minutes to administer
  • alignment to basic skills
  • reliability (similar scores result from different assessors)
  • ability to use as a universal screening tool and to monitor skills more frequently

For students receiving supplemental academic instruction (intervention), we will monitor progress every other week.

Questions to consider when viewing student CBM performance?

  • Is the student making adequate progress to close the gap between his/her current performance and grade level peers? CONTINUE
  • Is the student making progress, but not enough to close the gap with grade level peers? CHANGE- intensity, frequency, dosage
  • Is the student making less progress than his/her peers? CONSIDER SOMETHING ELSE
When making decisions using CBM data, keep in mind:

  • Initial decisions such as whether to intensify intensity or frequency, can be made after 4-6 weeks
  • More significant decisions require at least 10-12 data points

From:

Hosp, M. K., Hosp, J. L., & Howell, K. W. (2006). The ABCs of CBM: a practical guide to curriculum-based measurement (1st ed.). New York: Guilford Publications.


Direct Behavior Rating (DBR) is a measurement that allows for quick, efficient, and reliable monitoring of behavior. Plus, DBR is evidence based. More information on DBR can be found here. The typical starting point for DBR is measurement in three areas:

  1. Academic Engagement- actively or passively participating in the classroom activity

  2. Respectful- compliant and polite behavior in response to adult direction and/or interactions with peers and adults
  3. Disruptive- student action that interrupts regular school or classroom activity

Baseline for DBR consists of 7-10 data points (e.g. 5 days of AM and PM ratings). Monitoring could consist of twice weekly checks that are entered and graphed in ion.

Goals for DBR areas are:

8-10 (80-100% of the time) for Academic Engagement and Respect

0-2 (0-20% of the time) for Disruption

More information is available in this folder (click for link)



Progress Monitoring Resources

District Guidance Documents/Resources:

Below are links to collections of articles and references used in the selection and justification of CBM as an assessment to monitor progress.

References supporting CBM as a Predictor of Overall Reading Skill- click

CBM correlated with state test outcomes



Problem Solving Teams (PST)

Fall 2017: Updated PST Process with Non-Negotiable Elements (Elementary)- click for link


School District of Elmbrook Problem Solving Team (PST) Process:

PST steps

1.Problem Identification: To identify the gap between the student's performance and the expected performance for his/her grade level. When available, use two sources of data to identify a difficulty (e.g. MAP and Oral Reading, MAP and Teacher's College Running Record). The following sources may be considered:

· Universal Screening Measures
· Grade level expectation and student’s level of performance (gap)
· Past performance and educational history
· Classroom performance and available classroom data

2. Problem Analysis : Once a problem statement has been identified, the team should use available data and additional assessments to narrow in on a Root Cause or specific area of concern. Again, use 2 out of 3 to confirm a weakness is present. Additional assessment using CBM should be conducted when assessment results are contradictory. Prior performance can be considered too- is the weakness consistent?

To accurately target an intervention, use of the Stages of Learning (Haring & Eaton) will be referenced. The stages are:

Stage

Description

1.Acquisition

Student responses are slow with frequent errors. Requires supervision and frequent feedback. Goal: 90-95% accuracy before allowing independent practice.

2.Fluency

Goal- facilitate automaticity of skills with high level of accuracy (timed and accurate 95% or more)

3.Generalization and Adaptation

Goal: Use learned skills differently than taught (i.e. horizontal to vertical alignment of math calculations)


Example: If a student struggles to learn how to decode text, providing a fluency intervention will likely result in frustration and limited results.

3. Plan Development : Following the problem analysis, the team will select an intervention that best meets the students need and enter the plan in Ion.

The plan will include:

· Specific skill area addressed

· Number of days/week

· Number of minutes/session

· Goal and expected rate of improvement

4. Plan Implementation : The PST plan will be implemented and reviewed monthly. Monitor fidelity of delivery.

  • Is the student present for the intervention?
  • Is the intensity enough? (too many students, too few days)
  • Is or are the right skills targeted?

5. Plan Evaluation: After a minimum of 4 weeks, teams will check and determine if the student is demonstrating gains in the intervention. If results are less than expected, consider intensifying the intervention and ensuring only 1-2 skills are targeted. To have adequate confidence in progress monitoring results, 8-12 weeks of data are necessary. However, monitor outcomes and adjust as needed.

References:

Burns, Matthew K., and Kimberly Gibbons. Implementing Response-to-intervention in Elementary and Secondary Schools: Procedures to Assure Scientific-based Practices. New York: Routledge, 2012.

Oregon Response to Intervention: available at Oregon RtI Website (click to open link)

Thomas, Alex, and Jeff Grimes. Best Practice in Instructional Consultation and Instructional Consultation Teams. Best Practices in School Psychology. Bethesda, MD: National Association of School Psychologists, 2008.


Resources

School District of Elmbrook Problem Solving Team.pdf

PST Critical Component Checklist- revised 3-14.pdf

Progress Monitoring Guidelines and Requirements.pdf











Problem-Solving Team Membership: While universal screening tools assist us in easily identifying students who may be struggling academically or behaviorally, identifying the root cause of those struggles and developing a plan to support the student is typically a complex task that involves collaboration among a number of individuals. The district has identified the following guidelines for PST Membership to ensure that the resulting plans are thorough provide ownership to all those supporting our students.

Elementary Schools

Middle Schools

High Schools

Building Principal

Building Principal/Associate

*Building Principal/Associate

School Psychologist

School Psychologist

*School Psychologist

Primary Classroom Teacher

Core Classroom Teachers

*Guidance Counselor

Reading Specialist

Guidance Counselor

*Support Teacher (As Needed)

IRT

Reading Specialist

Intervention Teachers

Social Worker (As Needed)

IRT

GT Coordinator

Support Teacher (As Needed)

Social Worker (As Needed)

Social Worker

Nurse/Assistant (As Needed)

Support Teacher (As Needed)

Classroom Teachers (As Needed)

Nurse/Assistant (As Needed)

Nurse/Assistant (As Needed)

Upon convening the Problem-Solving Team, it is suggested that the team determine who will take on various role within the meeting (i.e. Meeting Facilitator, Data Reviewer, Note-taker, …)

Universal Screening


Universal Screening Process



DISTRICT RESOURCES (Target/Trigger Tables):

Universal Screening Resources

2017 Tiers of Performance- Aligned with Wisconsin Forward Proficiency (NEW 2017)
* Oral Reading Tiers of Performance
* Oral Reading Fluency Discontinuation Process
* MathFactFluencyTargets.pdf
* DRAFT-Writing Rubric Targets and Triggers-10/2015
* PALS Proposed Proficiency Guidelines- (locally developed)
* TC Benchmark Levels K-8 (UPDATED 8/16)

SCREENING TOOLS BY LEVEL:

Level:

English-Language Arts

Mathematics-Numeracy

Elementary

PALS (K5-2)

NWEA-MAP- (K-5)

Oral Reading Assessment
All: Grades 1-3 (selected 4, 5)
Grade 1: Winter/Spring: Passage Reading Fluency
Grades 2-3: Passage Reading Fluency
Grades 4-5- Passage Reading Fluency- see discontinuation process

Teachers College Running Record- (K-5)

Writing- Teachers College Prompt/Rubric

Math Fluency (1-5)

NWEA-MAP- (K-5)

Middle

NWEA-MAP

Teachers College Running Record

NWEA-MAP

High

NWEA-MAP (selected)

ACT Aspire (9-10)

ACT (Grade 11)

NWEA-MAP (selected)

ACT Aspire (9-10)

ACT (Grade 11)



Score Range Descriptions and Rationale:

On all district guiding documents (see first table on this page), the following color coding will be used.
Red: Warning indicator (trigger) or below
Yellow: Above Trigger but below Target
Green: Proficient or above (met or exceeded Target)
Blue: Well above Target or exceeding

Seasonal targets and triggers were determined based on the following rationale and are color coded in the following manner:

White column: Score to Predict ACT score of 24 (MAP-RIT Score): Theaker and Johnson (2011) provided Fall RIT scores that were likely to result in ACT scores of 24. Based on Elmbrook ACT results along with evidence indicating 24 results in adequate college and career readiness, this column was included.

NWEA-college-readiness-indicator.pdf

Blue- A score or level that is well above the proficiency target.

Green- Tier 1 Target - Proficiency scores were obtained based on the 2017 NWEA Linking Study. The study used an equalization method to provide target scores for each grade and season. Students meeting or exceeding target scores are likely to obtain proficient scores on the Forward Exam.

Yellow- National 50th Percentile (MAP-RIT score) : Based on the National RIT Scale Norms Study from 2015 (NWEA), the 50 th percentile score was presented for each season of each grade level. This provides a national perspective for teachers and parents.


Red- Warning Indicator: When possible, the 25th percentile or below was used as a warning indicator or 'trigger' score. On TC running records, triggers was established using levels indicating students were below expectations. Furthermore, Fletcher, Lyon, Fuchs, and Barnes (2007) indicated that the 25 th percentile is typically the level at which students begin to be considered at-risk for reading or math disorders and/or require consideration for intervention.

Average RIT Gains: (MAP-RIT Scores)- Based on the National RIT Scale Norms Study from 2015 (NWEA), the average growth from Fall to Winter, Winter to Spring, Fall to Spring, and Fall to Fall of the following year were listed. These scores provide estimates of expected growth. This way, teachers, parents and possibly students, can establish goals how to move up from one range to another. For example, moving up from the 25th percentile to the 50th percentile in a realistic manner based on expected growth.


References for Tiers of Performance:

The School District of Elmbrook Academic Universal Screening measures are:

Northwest Evaluation Association
Measures of Academic Progress® (MAP®) given three times per year (Oct, Jan and May) for K-8 and selected high school students

NWEA_2015_Full_Norming_Study.pdf (new, used for updated targets/triggers)

  • MAP Reading and Math will be assessed during the fall, winter, and spring test windows.

2017 Wisconsin NWEA Linking Study

Oral Reading CBM: easyCBM Word Reading and aimsweb Passage Reading Fluency curriculum based measures (CBM)

Teachers College of Reading and Writing: Running Records

Wisconsin Forward: Grades 3-8 and 10


Additional Notes:

Reading Fluency: aimsweb Oral Reading Fluency

Reading Fluency will be assessed using passages from aimsweb. Students in grades one through five will be asked to read three passages. Words read correctly in a minute will be recorded along with the student's accuracy.

T
eachers College of Reading and Writing:

Classroom teachers administer these assessments to students individually. These assessments help teachers identify which level of texts students can read independently and will therefore be able to practice all the reading strategies they are learning during the Reading Workshop.


Universal Screening Resources and References:

Fletcher, J. M., Lyon, G. R., Fuchs, L. S., & Barnes, M. A., (2007) Learning disabilities: From identification to intervention . New York: Guilford Press.

Interpreting the easyCBM Progress Monitoring Test Results. (2013). Riverside. (resources are available on the 'lite' side of the easyCBM website, click to access)


Northwest Evaluation Association (NWEA). (2011).RIT scale norms study. Available at:
http://www.nwea.org/sites/www.nwea.org/files/resources/NWEA%202011%20Norms%20Re port_01.17.2012_2.pdf

Linking the Wisconsin Forward Assessments to NWEA MAP Tests (2017).

Theaker, R. S. & Johnson, C. S. (2001). Measuring growth toward college readiness: Using MAP (Measures of Academic Progress) scores to predict success on the ACT test benchmark scores: Kingsbury Center.

Wisconsin Department of Public Instruction. Wisconsin Forward Score Ranges. Retrieved from:
https://dpi.wi.gov/assessment/forward/resources

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